According to WHO, Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine, which stimulates the body ’s own immune system, to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease.


Types of Vaccines are typically based on fundamental information about the microbe, such as how it infects cells and how the immune system responds to it, as well as practical considerations, such as regions of the world where the vaccine would be used.

The following are some of the types of vaccines:

  • Live, attenuated vaccines
  • Inactivated vaccines
  • Subunit vaccines
  • Toxoid vaccines
  • Conjugate vaccines
  • DNA vaccines
  • Recombinant vector vaccines


Vaccines reduce the risk of infection by working with the body’s natural defenses to help it safely develop immunity to disease. When germs (bacteria or viruses), invade the body, they attack and multiply. This invasion is called an infection which causes disease. The antibodies from immune system fight and kills the germs to protect the body from disease.

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running for health

Running for Health

The term running can refer to any of a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting. It is assumed that the ancestors of humankind developed the ability to run for long distances about 2.6 million years ago, probably in order to hunt animals.

Running is in contrast to walking, where one foot is always in contact with the ground, the legs are kept mostly straight and the center of gravity vaults over the stance leg or legs in an inverted pendulum fashion, while running is a type of gait characterized by an aerial phase in which all feet are above the ground, with some exceptions. A characteristic feature of a running body from the viewpoint of spring-mass mechanics is that changes in kinetic and potential energy within a stride occur simultaneously, with energy storage accomplished by springy tendons and passive muscle elasticity.

Scientific research has proved that regular running for about 150 minutes per week can help to prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, some cancers, and improves the quality of emotional and mental well-being.

Be Ready: In the beginning start running slowly, if haven’t done regular exercise in a while, or you have diabetes or heart disease, talk with a doctor before starting to run.

Check Fitness Level: Test fitness level, including blood pressure and pulse rate.

Set a Goal: Decide the right goal which can motivate for running. Measure distance, weight, blood pressure.

Plan It Out: Whatever is the goal, a good plan will help to achieve the goal safely. The plan should include where to start, how quickly to add mileage, when to rest, and how to keep from getting hurt and it should do this on a day-by-day basis.

Start Easy: Start by walking and begin to run gradually, as you feel comfortable. A good goal is to get at least 150 minutes a week of “moderate aerobic activity,” like walking, or 75 minutes of “vigorous aerobic activity,” like running. Spread those minutes out over the course of a week.

Warm Up: Warm-up eases running and may help to prevent injury and keep muscles from being sore. If going for a fast walk, walk slowly for 5 to 10 minutes first and if going for a run, start with a brisk walk or slow jog.

Check Body Condition: If dizzy, feel sick, or can’t catch a breath, stop running probably because of overdoing it, then take a couple of days off to get strength back.

Cool Down: This lets your heart rate and blood pressure ease back into their normal ranges after your run. You do it the same way you warmed up: Slow down and go for another 5 to 10 minutes.

Stretch: Stretch major muscles after running and not before, breathe properly. A running guide or exercise professional can help with the right moves.

Res: Rest provide a chance to recover and get body stronger.

Make It a Habit: After few weeks of regular running habits, after a few weeks become a hard habit to break.
Make It Social: A little friendly competition with people at site can help to stick to regular routine.

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National Immunization Awareness Month

National Immunization Awareness Month

National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM) is an annual observance held in August to raise awareness about the importance of vaccination in preventing serious, sometimes fatal, diseases across the lifespan of people of all ages.

Every year, over 200,000 people become seriously ill from viral infections that could have been prevented. Regardless of age, vaccines lower the chance of developing certain diseases, such as influenza which affects many families every year. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, receiving the flu vaccination can reduce the risk of illness by 40 to 60 percent. Staying up-to-date can also avert the spread of diseases to your family and loved ones.

National Immunization Awareness Month is a friendly reminder that vaccinations are a safe and easy way to promote a healthier lifestyle. With summer ending and school beginning, it is important to make an appointment with your physician can provide information about vaccine needs and issues related specifically to different age groups. The physician takes the child’s medical history and determines which immunizations may be the most effective.

Regardless of age, immunizations may help to prevent you and your loved ones from vaccine-preventable diseases, such as the flu or measles, etc.

We all know contracting illnesses as a child or an adult can cause discomfort as well as inconvenience. School absenteeism due to viruses is the most common occurrence affecting children across the nation. Illnesses can spread quickly through school settings due to poor hand washing and coughing, creating highly contagious environments.

Updating vaccinations are the most effective and safe way to reduce the risk of infection throughout schools and the community. An appointment with your physician can provide information about vaccine needs and issues related specifically to different age groups. Your physician will take into account your child’s medical history and determine which immunizations may be the most effective.

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Diabetes and Diet

Diabetes and Diet

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affects the blood sugar (glucose) level of the body. Diabetes occurs when blood glucose is higher than the normal level.
The most common types of diabetes are type1, type 2, and Gestational diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes, the body does not make insulin Type 1diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, People with type 1diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive.

Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the body does not make sufficient insulin. Type 2diabetes occurs generally in middle-aged and older people.

Gestational diabetes develops, in some women, during pregnancy which usually goes away after the delivery

Blood glucose is the main source of energy for body available from the food. Insulin (a hormone made by the pancreas), helps glucose from food get into cells to be used for energy. Sometimes the body doesn’t make enough or any insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach cells.

Over time, high blood glucose leads to problems such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, eye problems, dental disease, nerve damage, foot problems. Controlling diabetes can lower the chances of developing these diabetes-related health problems. To live a long and healthy life, diabetes should be managed every day. Diabetes can affect almost every part of the body; therefore, blood glucose levels need to be managed. Managing blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol can help to prevent the health problems that can occur because of diabetes.

Healthcare team helps to create a diabetes meal plan that meets needs. The key to eating with diabetes is to eat a variety of healthy foods from all food groups, in the amounts outlined in the meal plan. The food groups are
Vegetables: includes broccoli, carrots, greens, peppers, and tomatoes, corn, and green peas
Fruits: includes oranges, melon, berries, apples, bananas, and grapes
Grains: at least half of required grains for the day should be whole grains which include wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, and quinoa examples: bread, pasta, cereal, and tortillas
Protein: dried beans and certain peas, such as chickpeas and split peas, nuts and peanuts
Dairy: nonfat or low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese. Use oils (canola and olive oil) when cooking food instead of butter, cream, lard, or stick margarine.

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Alzheimer’s-Brain Awareness

June is Alzheimer’s & Brain Awareness Month, a time dedicated to increasing public awareness of Alzheimer’s disease, available resources and how people can get involved to support the cause.
In the United States every 65 seconds, someone develops Alzheimer’s disease. To recognize this alarming statistic, ParamCARE Foundation encourage all to take the ‘Purple Pledge’ to support the 47 million people worldwide who are living with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias

Key Facts:

  • Alzheimer’s is probably detected at the end-stage of the disease
  • Generally, memory loss is not part of the normal aging process
  • Current Alzheimer’s drugs are effective to a certain level
  • Alzheimer’s disease may be treated.
  • There are many drugs in the Alzheimer’s treatment pipeline.
  • Taking good care of heart and health will help to keep brain healthy
  • Avoiding risk factors may delay or prevent cognitive problems later in life.
  • Alzheimer’s is more than memory loss. It can appears through a variety of signs and symptoms.
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Heart Disease

Heart Disease

Heart Disease:

There are many different kinds of heart disease. The most common is atherosclerosis which is the buildup of fatty deposits or plaques in the walls of arteries. As result of plaque formation, there is less space for blood to flow normally during circulation resulting in to less delivery of oxygen through­out the body, including to the heart. Depending on where the buildup is, it can cause a heart attack, leg pain, or a stroke. Atherosclerosis is not part of normal aging and can be serious.

Common Sign & Symptoms of Heart Disease:

Early heart disease may not have symptoms, or early symptoms may not be noticeable particularly in older adults. That’s why regular checkups with are important for diagnosis and prevention.

  • Pain in the chest shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back
  • Shortness of breath when active or at rest
  • Chest pain during physical activity that gets better when you rest
  • Lightheaded
  • Dizzy
  • Confusion
  • Headaches
  • Cold sweats
  • Nausea/vomiting
  • Easily tired or fatigued
  • Swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, stomach, and/or neck
  • Less able to exercise or be physically active
  • Problems doing your normal activities

Prevention of Heart Disease:

  • Don’t smoke
  • Stay at a healthy weight
  • Avoid spending hours every day sitting
  • Exercise
  • Keep your diabetes, high blood pressure, and/or high cholesterol under control
  • Manage your stress
  • Don’t drink a lot of alcohol
  • Regular Medical checkup & Tests
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Key Facts:

Arthritis is derived from Greek word “Arthro” means joint and ‘Itis’ means inflammation. It is characterized by pain and stiffness of one or more joints, typically worsen with the age.

*The first description of rheumatoid arthritis was mentioned, in 1800, by French Physician Dr. Augustin Jacob Landre-Beuvais in Paris.

*Arthritis is predominantly a disease of old persons but children can also be affected. More than 70% of the individuals of age 65 and above are affected by arthritis.

*Arthritis is more common in women (26%) than in men (19%), according to CDC, out of total number of patients, 60% are women at any age.

*According to the survey of CDC, based on 2010-2012 estimated 52.5 million (22.7%) that is 1 in 5 adults have arthritis.

* About 23% overweight & 31% obese adults have arthritis.

* About 294000 children under the age of 18 years, are suffering from arthritis or rheumatic condition.

*Arthritis is the # 1 cause of disability in USA, about 22.7 million (9.8%) have arthritis or Arthritis Attributable Activity Limitations (AAAL).

*About 20 million individuals have limitations in their daily routine activity on daily basis.

* It is estimated that about $ 100 billion (About 50%) earnings are lost every year.

* About 1 million hospitalization & about 45 million out patient’s visits to health care center visits are due to arthritis or its related complaints.

*As per NHIS projection about 78 million (26%) adults may have doctor diagnosed arthritis by 2040.

*About 35 million (44%) may report for arthritis attributable activity limitations by 2040

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Nutrition Glossary

Nutrition Glossary

Nutrition is about eating a healthy and balanced diet. Food and drink provide the energy and nutrients you need to be healthy. Understanding the following nutrition terms may make it easier for you to make better food choices.
Calories: In a nutritional context, the kilojoule (kJ) is the SI unit of food energy provided by energy-containing nutrients of food-carbohydrates, fats, proteins


A sugar or starch such as pasta, bread, fruits. Vegetables, beans, or dairy that the body uses as its main energy source. Carbohydrates have 4 calories a gram.


Vital for building hormones and cell membranes. Cholesterol is listed under the fat information on a nutrition label. Person should consume less than 300 mg of cholesterol daily.

Daily value:

The percentage of a certain nutrient in a food, based on a 2,000-calorie diet. It suggest a food’s nutrient contribution in diet; 5% or less is considered low for that nutrient, 10% to 19% is good, and 20% or more is high.

Dietary fiber:

The part of plant foods: Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds contain fiber. Fibers are not digested by body. It helps to lower cholesterol.t least 25 to 38 grams daily.


Nutrients added to replace those lost during food processing. For example, B vitamins are lost when wheat is processed into white flour, so these nutrients are later added back.


Fortified foods have nutrients added to them that weren’t there originally. Milk, for example, is fortified with vitamin D, a nutrient that helps you absorb milk’s calcium.

High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS):

A sweetener that is often used instead of sugar in food manufacturing. Hydrogenated. Hydrogenation turns a liquid fat such as vegetable oil into a semi-solid, more shelf-stable fat, such as margarine. Most oils are only partially hydrogenated, which creates harmful Trans fats that can raise cholesterol.


Added to chocolates, baking products, cosmetics, lecithin is used as a thinner, preservative, or an emulsifier. Egg yolks, soy beans, fish, and other foods naturally contain lecithin.


get the nutrients needs by eating a variety of color vegetables. Try colorful fresh & seasonal vegetables. Two and half cups are needed in a day.


Your body quickest energy source comes from grains products. Like bread, pasta, oatmeal, cereals, and tortillas. It is always healthy to use Whole-grain foods like whole-wheat bread and brown rice. Daily requirement for grains is about six Ounces.


Protein is essential for building and repairing muscle. Quality protein sources comes from plant based foods. Beans, peas (Kidney, pinto, white or black beans), spilt peas (Chickpeas), Soya products, unsalted nuts and seeds like almonds. Use about Five Ounces a day.


Foods like fat -free and low-fat milk, cheese, paneer, Yogurt, and fortified soymilk help to build and maintain strong bones. Preference should be given to cow and goat milk made dairy products. Daily requirement is about three cups.

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What Are Triglycerides?

Triglycerides are a type of fat also known as “lipids in blood. Triglyceride is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride). Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils Body converts extra calories especially from food such as pastries white bread, candy, sugar, oil, margarine, butter and alcohol into triglycerides and stores them in fat cells. Triglycerides play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat. They contain more than double energy (approximately 9 kcal/g or 38 kJ/g) as carbohydrates (approximately 4 kcal/g or 17 kJ/g)

In the human body high levels of triglycerides have been linked to atherosclerosis, risk of heart disease and stroke. However, the relative negative impact of raised levels of triglycerides compared to that of LDL: HDL ratios is as yet unknown. The risk can be partly accounted for by a strong inverse relationship between triglyceride level and HDL-cholesterol level.

Triglycerides & Cholesterol are known as lipids but only triglycerides are fats. Cholesterol is a waxy substance made by liver and intestines that helps make cell membranes and hormones. It also helps body to digest food. Body uses them to transfer and store energy for later use. But higher level of bad LDL) cholesterol can raise risk of heart disease.

The levels of good (HDL) cholesterol bad (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in blood can be measured by Blood Test known as Lipid Profile. Desirable: Less than 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L)
Borderline high: 150 to 199 mg/dL (1.7-2.2 mmol/L) High: 200 to 499 mg/dL (2.3-5.6 mmol/L)
Very high: 500 mg/dL or greater (5.6 mmol/L)

These levels are tested after fasting 8 to 12 hours. Triglyceride levels remain temporarily higher for a period after eating.

The American Heart Association recommends an optimal triglyceride level of 100 mg/dL (1.1 mmol/L) or lower to improve heart health.

For people with mildly or moderately high levels of triglycerides lifestyle changes including weight loss, exercise moderate exercise and dietary modification are recommended. This may include restriction of carbohydrates (specifically fructose) and fat in the diet and the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids from algae, nuts, and seeds. The decision to treat hypertriglyceridemia with medication depends on the levels and on the presence of other risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

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National Kidney Awareness Month

National Kidney Awareness

The National Kidney Awareness Day (March, 14) is dedicated to the awareness, risk factors, prevention and treatment of kidney disease for hundreds of thousands of healthcare professionals, millions of patients and their families, and tens of millions of Americans at risk.

About The Kidneys:

The kidneys are two, fist-sized organs in lower back of the body. They maintain overall health through the following functions:

  • Kidneys filter about 200 liters of blood each day and remove waste out of the body.
  • Regulating of the body’s salt, potassium and acid content.
  • Help to regulate blood pressure.
  • Removing of drugs from the body.
  • Balancing the body’s fluids.
  • Releasing hormones that regulate blood pressure.
  • Producing an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones.
  • Controlling the production of red blood cells.

Quick Facts on Kidney Disease:

  • Kidneys are also prone to disease.
  • About 1 in 3 Americans is at risk for kidney disease due to diabetes, high blood pressure or a family history of kidney failure.
  • More than 30 million Americans have kidney disease, and most don’t know it because there are often no symptoms until the disease has progressed.
  • There are over 95,000 people waiting for kidney transplants.
  • More than 590,000 people have kidney failure in the US today.
  • Kidney disease is the 9th leading cause of death in the country.
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